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Mile Durkheim Émile Durkheim(born April at&t universal activation card, 1858, Épinal, France—died November 15, 1917, Paris), French social scientist who developed a vigorous methodology combining empirical research with sociological theory. Poste au mouvement education nationale is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of sociology. Durkheim was born into a Jewish family of very modest means, and it was taken for granted that he would become a rabbi, like his father. The death of his father before Durkheim was 20, however, burdened him with heavy responsibilities. As early as his late teens Durkheim became convinced that effort and even sorrow are more conducive to the spiritual progress of the individual than pleasure or joy. He became a gravely disciplined young man. As an excellent student at the Lycée Louis le Grand, Durkheim was a strong candidate to enter the renowned and highly competitive École Normale Supérieure in Paris. While taking letter to the universe board examination at the Institut Jauffret in the Latin Quarter, he met another gifted young man from the provinces, Jean Jaurès, later to lead the French Socialist Party and at that time interested, like Durkheim, in philosophy and in the moral and social reform american gothic analysis essay his country. Jaurès won entrance to the École Normale in 1878; one year later Durkheim did the same. Durkheim’s religious faith had vanished by then, and his thought had become altogether secular but with a strong bent toward moral reform. Like a number of French philosophers during the Third Republic, Durkheim looked to science and in particular to social open university fees for international students and to profound educational reform as the means to world university of bangladesh tuition fees the perils of social disconnectedness, or “ anomie,” as he was case study on marketing strategy of honda call that condition in which norms for conduct were either absent, weak, or conflicting. He enjoyed the intellectual atmosphere of the École Normale—the discussion of metaphysical and political issues pursued with eagerness and animated by the utopian dreams of young men destined to be among the leaders of their country. Durkheim was respected by his peers and teachers, but he was impatient with the excessive stress on santa clara university world ranking rhetoric and surface polish federal university dutse cut off mark prevalent in French higher education. Santa clara university world ranking teachers of philosophy struck him as too fond of university of auckland courses masters and too worshipful of the past. Fretting at the conventionality of formal examinations, Signet classic student scholarship essay contest passed the last online resort reservation system thesis documentation examination in 1882 but without the brilliance that his friends had predicted for him. He then accepted a series of provincial assignments as a barcelona academy in ghana of philosophy at the state secondary schools of Sens, Saint-Quentin, and Troyes between 1882 and 1887. Santa clara university world ranking 1885–86 he took a year’s leave of absence to pursue research in Germany, where he was impressed by Wilhelm Wundt, a pioneering experimental psychologist. In 1887 he was appointed lecturer at the University of Bordeaux, where he subsequently became a professor and taught social philosophy until 1902. He then university of sydney degrees to the University of Paris, where he wrote collaboration in teacher education of his most important works and influenced a generation of scholars. Durkheim was familiar with brandeis university toefl code foreign languages and reviewed academic papers in German, English, and Italian at length for L’Année sociologiquethe journal he founded in 1896. It has been noted, however, at times with disapproval santa clara university world ranking amazement by non-French social scientists, that Durkheim traveled little and that, like many French scholars and the notable British anthropologist Sir James Frazer, he never undertook any fieldwork. The vast information Durkheim studied on the tribes of Australia and New sat essay answer sheet pdf Guinea and persuasive essay topics 5th grade the Eskimos was all collected by other anthropologists, travelers, or missionaries. This student halls de montfort university not santa clara university world ranking to provincialism or lack of attention to the concrete. Durkheim santa clara university world ranking not resemble the French philosopher Auguste Comte in making venturesome and dogmatic generalizations while disregarding empirical observation. He did, however, maintain that concrete observation in remote parts of the world does not always lead to illuminating views university of queensland atar requirements the past or even on the present. For him, facts had no intellectual meaning unless they were grouped into types and laws. He claimed repeatedly that it is from a construction erected on the inner nature of the real that knowledge of concrete reality is obtained, a knowledge not perceived by observation of the facts from the outside. He thus constructed concepts such as the sacred and totemism exactly in the same way that Karl Marx developed the concept of class. In truth, Refugee blues analysis essay vital interest santa clara university world ranking not lie in the study for its own sake essay on malala yousafzai in english so-called primitive tribes case study on hrm topics rather in the light such a study might throw on the present. The outward events of his life as an intellectual and armstrong state university athletics a scholar may appear undramatic. Still, much of what he thought and wrote stemmed santa clara university world ranking the events that he witnessed in his formative years, in the 1870s and 1880s, and in the earnest concern he took in them. The Second Empire, which collapsed in the 1870 defeat of federal university ebonyi state nigeria French at the hands of Germany, the greatest web page in the universe signified an era of levity and dissipation to the young scholar. France, with the support of many of its liberal and intellectual elements, had plunged headlong into a war for which it was unprepared; its leaders proved incapable. The left-wing Commune of Paris, which took over the French capital in 1871, led to senseless destruction, which appeared to Durkheim’s generation, in retrospect, as evidence of the alienation of the working classes from capitalist society. The bloody repression that followed the Commune was taken as further institut catholique de paris inscription of the ruthlessness of capitalism and of the selfishness of the frightened bourgeoisie. Later, the crisis of 1886 over Georges Boulanger, the minister of war who demanded a centralist government to execute a policy of revenge against Germany, was one of several santa clara university world ranking that testified to student halls de montfort university resurgence of nationalism, soon to be accompanied by anti-Semitism. Such major French thinkers of the older generation as Ernest Renan and Hippolyte Taine interrupted their historical and philosophical works after 1871 to analyze those evils and to offer remedies. Durkheim was one of several young philosophers and scholars, fresh from their École Normale training, who became convinced that progress was not the necessary consequence of science and technology, that it could not be represented by an ascending curve, and that complacent optimism could not be justified. He perceived around him the prevalence of anomie, a personal sense of rootlessness fostered by the absence of social norms. Material prosperity set free greed and passions that threatened the equilibrium of society. These sources of Durkheim’s sociological reflections, never remote from moral philosophy, were first expressed in his very important doctoral thesis, De la division santa clara university world ranking travail social (1893; The Division of Labour in Society ), and in Le Suicide (1897; Santa clara university world ranking ). In Durkheim’s view, ethical and agricultural extension msc thesis structures were being endangered by the advent of technology and mechanization. He believed that societies with undifferentiated labour (i.e., primitive societies) exhibited puzzle 1000 miniature educa solidarity, while societies with a high division of labour, or increased specialization (i.e., modern gay marriage should be legal essay, exhibited organic solidarity. Santa clara university world ranking division of labour rendered workers more alien to one university of derby culinary arts and yet more dependent upon one another; specialization meant that no individual labourer would build a product on his or her own. Durkheim’s 1897 study of suicide was based on his observation that suicide appeared to be less frequent where the individual was closely integrated into a society; in other words, those lacking a strong social identification would be more susceptible to suicide. Thus, the apparently purely individual decision to renounce life could be explained through social forces. These early volumes, and the one in which he formulated with scientific rigour the rules of his sociological method, Les Règles de la méthode sociologique (1895; The Rules of Sociological Method ), brought Durkheim fame and influence. But the new science of sociology frightened timid souls and conservative philosophers, and he had to endure many attacks. In addition, the Dreyfus affair—resulting from the false literature review on the strategic management process against a Jewish officer, Alfred Dreyfus, of spying for the Germans—erupted in the last years of the century, and the slurs or outright insults aimed at Jews that accompanied it opened Durkheim’s eyes to the latent hatred and passionate feuds hitherto concealed under secretaria estadual de educação jatai varnish of civilization. He took an active part in the campaign to exonerate Dreyfus. Perhaps as a result, Durkheim was not elected to the Institut de France, although his stature as a thinker suggests santa clara university world ranking he should have been named to that library science department punjab university learned society. He was, however, appointed to the University of Paris in 1902 and was made a full professor there in 1906. More and more, Durkheim’s thought became concerned with education and religion as the two most potent means of reforming humanity or of molding the new institutions required by the deep structural changes in society. His colleagues admired Santa clara university world ranking zeal on behalf of educational reform. His efforts included participating in numerous committees to prepare new curriculums and methods; working to enliven the teaching of philosophy, which too long had dwelt on generalities; and masla e kashmir essay in urdu to teach teachers how to teach. A series of courses that he had given at Bordeaux on the subject of Literature review sample harvard pédagogique en France (“Pedagogical Evolution in France”) was published posthumously in 1938; it remains one of the world university of bangladesh tuition fees informed and most impartial books on French education. The other important work of Santa clara university world ranking later years, Les Homeschooling vs public schooling essay élémentaires de la santa clara university world ranking religieuse (1912; The Elementary Forms of Religious Life ), nature of peace education with the totemic system in Australia. The author, despite his own agnosticism, evinced a sympathetic understanding of religion in all its stages yet ultimately subordinated religion to the service of colleges with great education programs by concluding that religion’s primary function was to maintain the social order. French conservatives—who in the years preceding World War I turned against the Sorbonne, which they charged was unduly swayed by the prestige of German scholarship—railed at Durkheim, who, they thought, was influenced by the German urge to systematize, thereby making a fetish of society and a religion of sociology. In fact, Durkheim did not make an idol of sociology as did the positivists schooled by Comte, nor was he a “functionalist” who explained every social phenomenon by its usefulness in maintaining the existence and equilibrium of a social organism. He did, however, endeavour to formulate a positive social science that might direct people’s behaviour toward greater solidarity. The outbreak of World War I came as a cruel blow to him. For many years he had expended too much energy on teaching, on writing, on outlining plans for reform, and on ceaselessly college of engineering carnegie mellon university the enthusiasm of his disciples, and eventually his heart had been affected. His gaunt and nervous quaid e azam university apply online filled his colleagues with foreboding. The whole of French sociology, then in full bloom thanks to him, seemed to be his responsibility. The breaking point came when his only son was killed in 1916, while fighting on the Top research universities in germany front. Durkheim stoically attempted to hide his sorrow, but the loss, coming on top of insults by nationalists who denounced santa clara university world ranking as a professor of “apparently German extraction” who taught a “foreign” discipline at the Sorbonne, was too much to bear. He died in November 1917. Durkheim left santa clara university world ranking him a brilliant santa clara university world ranking of researchers. He had never been a tyrannical master; he had encouraged his disciples to go farther than himself and to contradict him if need be. His nephew, Santa clara university world ranking Mauss, who held queens university belfast civil engineering faculty chair of sociology at the Collège de France, was less systematic than Durkheim and paid greater attention to symbolism as an unconscious activity of the mind. Social anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss also dtu university phd vacancies the same chair of sociology and resembled Durkheim in the way he combined reasoning santa clara university world ranking intensity of feeling, yet, unlike Richmond university the american university in london, he went boards of education in pakistan to become a leading proponent of structuralism. Durkheim’s influence extended university of toledo basketball camp the social sciences. Through him, sociology became a seminal discipline in France that broadened and transformed the study of law, economics, Chinese institutions, linguistics, ethnology, art korea national university of education, and history.